Reports & Indices Current Affairs - 2019
This category comprises Current Affairs 2019-2020 related to various reports and indexes / indices by National and International Bodies and organizations such as World, Bank, World Economic Forum, NITI Aayog and various other educational and research organizations. We also place report highlights of various committees and commissions in this category.
Category Wise PDF Compilations available at This Link
Pacific island nation of Papua New Guinea, Country in Oceania has highest number of ‘living’ indigenous languages in world (840). Living languages stands for languages that are still being used and spoken by people. India stands fourth in list with 453 languages.
In 2016, United Nation’s Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII) highlighted that 40% of estimated 6,700 languages spoken around world were in danger of disappearing.
Key Findings of Ethnologue
Ethnologue is a directory of languages which lists 7,111 living languages worldwide.
According to Ethnologue-
3,741 languages (over half total) which have fewer than 1,000 speakers.
Some language families are very diverse and have several languages under them, but are spoken by only a small percentage of population. For example, Trans-New Guinea family, which has 478 languages, accounts for just 0.05% of total language speakers.
Indo-European family has 445 languages including Spanish, English, German, Punjabi and Bengali and has highest percentage of speakers- 46.31%.
Most Indian languages are derivatives of languages that are spoken in other parts of Asia as well, for example- Sino-Tibetan languages are spoken across Northeast India, China, Bhutan, Nepal and other South East Asian countries. One of outliers to this trend is Andamanese language family, which is confined to India alone.
Greenberg’s Diversity Index
As per Ethnologue, ‘Greenberg’s diversity index’ is the probability that any two people of country selected at random would have different mother tongues.
Value ranges from: 0-1, where ‘0’ indicates no diversity i.e. everyone has same mother tongue and ‘1’ indicates total diversity i.e. no two people will have same mother tongue. Therefore higher diversity index would mean more languages spread across country.
Global Distribution of Languages
Most widely spoken languages worldwide: English, Chinese, Hindi, Arabic and Spanish are most widely spoken languages worldwide when only 1st-languages are considered. These 5 languages account for what is spoken by over 40% of people worldwide.
Number of Languages by Region– Asia (2303) and Africa (2140) account for highest number of indigenous languages (over 70% of total), Pacific (1322) and Americas (1058).
Widely English-speaking nations- United States (335 languages) and Australia (319) are among countries where highest number of languages are spoken this is because they have small and rapidly declining pockets of indigenous language speaking populations.
Languages in Decline
As per UNESCO’s ‘Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger‘-
Since 1950 228 languages have become extinct.
About 10% of languages are classified ‘vulnerable’, while another 10% are ‘critically endangered’.
In India, 5 languages have become extinct since 1950, while 42 are critically endangered.
Several languages are now “endangered” and in case of languages such as Tiniguan (Colombian origin), there is just a single native speaker left.
International Year of Indigenous Languages
The year 2019 is designated as United Nations’ International Year of Indigenous Languages. It aims to promote native tongues in 5 key areas-
- Increasing understanding, reconciliation and international cooperation
- Integration of indigenous languages into standard setting
- Empowerment through capacity building.
- Creation of favourable conditions for knowledge-sharing and dissemination of good practices with regards to indigenous languages
- Growth and development via elaboration of new knowledge
Tags: ‘International Year of Indigenous Languages • Ethnologue • Global Distribution of Languages • Greenberg's Diversity Index • living indigenous languages in world
As per property consultant CPRE’s annual Global Prime Office Occupancy Costs Survey, New Delhi’s Connaught Place (CP) is 9th most expensive office location in the world with an annual rent of nearly $144 per sq. ft. CP retained its 9th position from last year. CBRE is world’s leading commercial real estate services company.
Key Highlights of Survey
New Delhi’s Connaught Place (CP) is among top 10 most expensive office markets globally. As per the report, office occupancy cost in New Delhi’s CP is $143.97 per sq ft.
Asia’s performance in prime office space leasing segment-
6 of world’s 10 most expensive office markets are found in Asia.
For 2nd year straight Hong Kong’s central district retained top spot as World’s most two expensive market for prime office rents. Its occupancy cost was valued at $322 per sq.ft.
Reason Behind Cost: As per report the growing significance of talent acquisition race are driving prime occupancy cost to newer heights. Along with this other driving forces behind price growth are limited supply and moderate construction pipelines in most cities.
On Indian commercial Real Estate Market: BPRE survey highlights that strong demand from technology, finance and e-commerce sectors has fueled growth momentum in prime occupancy costs. Also in India commercial office market remains a strong growth propeller for real estate sector.
About Global Prime Office Occupancy Costs survey
It is an annual survey released by BPRE.
The cost taken in Survey reflects rent, plus local taxes and service charges for highest-quality prime office properties.
It tracks cost of leasing prime office space globally.