Science & Technology Current Affairs - 2019

Science & Technology Current Affairs 2019-2020 category comprises current affairs with all important national / international updates in science and tech and events for the year 2019-2020 for UPSC, States, Civil services, SSC and other competitive examinations of India and States.

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“1000 Genomes Project”: Global genomes decoded to trace disease roots

image What is the “1000 Genomes Project”?

  • Scientists working for The 1,000 Genomes Project have decoded the genomes of more than 1,000 people from 14 ethnic global groups. It is the largest and most detailed compilation of human DNA variations, to track origin of rare and common diseases.
  • Launched in January 2008
  • An international research effort to establish by far the most detailed catalogue of human genetic variation.
  • The project has generated raw information to the tune of 180 terabytes. All of the information is freely available on internet.
  • The sequencing of 1092 genomes was announced in a Nature publication in October 2012.

How would this project help?

  • The project would help in tracing genetic origins of diseases in populations around the globe.

As per scientists, genetic composition of any two people is 99 % same, it varies by 1% or less. This 1% or less contains the rare variants which are thought to contribute to rare diseases as well as common conditions like cancer, heart disease and diabetes. Deeper understanding over rare variants may also explain why some medications are not effective in certain people or cause side-effects such as nausea, vomiting, insomnia and sometimes even heart problems or death. As per scientists, most rare variants differ from one population to another, and that they developed recently in human evolutionary history, after populations in Europe, Africa, Asia and the Americas diverged from a single group.

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Free generic drugs via public hospitals; Three fold increase in the allocation to health sector in the 12th Plan

The allotment for the health sector during the 12th Plan had been enhanced three times over the previous Plan allocation to handle complex challenges.

The outlay in the 12th Plan had been fixed at Rs. 3-lakh crore, which was 1.95 % of the GDP. During the last Plan period, the sector had got Rs. 89,265 crore.

Free generic drugs would be provided through public hospitals to help “reduce out-of-pocket expenditure of the poor” on health.

The plan will emphasize on nutrition, safe drinking water, sanitation, housing and education, particularly education of the girl child, as they were increasingly being underlined as social determinants of health.

What is a Generic Drug?