Animal Cruelty Current Affairs - 2019

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Uttarakhand HC declares entire animal kingdom as legal entities

The Uttarakhand High Court has declared entire animal kingdom i.e. all animals, including avian and aquatic species as legal entities with rights, duties and liabilities of living person. The order was given by Division Bench of Justice Rajiv Sharma and Justice Lok Pal.


The Division Bench of High Court was hearing PIL by Narayan Dutt Bhatt, filed in 2014 where petitioner had sought directions to restrict movement of horse carts (tongas) between India and Nepal through Banbasa in Champawat district of Uttarakhand. However, High Court had enlarged scope of petition in larger public interest to promote protection and welfare of the animals.

Court Ruling

The court ruled that entire animal kingdom, including avian and aquatic ones are legal entities and have distinct persona with corresponding rights, duties and liabilities of living person. All the citizens throughout state are hereby declared persons in loco parentis as human face for welfare and protection of animals.

It directed State Government that no animal, including horses moving between India and Nepal, carries excess weight. It also banned use of any sharp equipment throughout state to avoid bruises, swelling, abrasions or severe pain to animals.

It also directed all veterinary doctors across Uttarakhand to mandatorily treat animals brought to them by citizens of the state. If animal cannot be brought to doctor, then vet must personally visit and attend the stray cattle, or animal without delay.

Legal entity

In common law jurisprudence, there are two types of persons, natural persons or human beings and artificial person, which are also known as juristic persons, juridical entity or legal person other than natural person. Legal or juristic persons are created by law and recognised as legal entity, having distinct identity, legal personality and besides duties and rights. They include private business firm or entity, non-governmental or government organisations, trusts and societies, besides others.

Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission approves modern animal-free testing for drugs

Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC) has in its 2018 edition of Indian Pharmacopoeia approved modern, animal-free tests for drug manufacturers. It will spare animals from suffering due to drug experiments.

2018 Indian Pharmacopoeia

It provides guidelines on tests for drugs manufactured and marketed in India. It replaces pyrogen test carried out on rabbits and abnormal toxicity test carried out on guinea pigs and mice with tests that can be done in test tubes. These guidelines will come into effect from July 1, 2018.

The pyrogen test will be replaced by bacterial endotoxin test or monocyte activation test which can be carried out in test tubes. For abnormal toxicity test, Vaccine manufacturers can apply for waiver by getting compliance certificate from National Control Laboratory.


People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) India was pushing for doing away with cruel methods of testing on animals for the past several years. It had written to IPC in 2015 with several suggestions. These suggestions were discussed in a meeting of expert committee on vaccine standards that was held in 2016 and few of them have finally approved by IPC.

Pyrogen test is carried out to check impurity or substance that can cause adverse side-effects. For the test, drug is injected into rabbit and animal is closely observed for feverish symptoms. The abnormal toxicity test is carried out to check potential hazardous biological contamination in vaccine formulations. This batch test is done before product is approved for marketing. In this, mice or guinea pigs are injected with vaccine. The scientists observe if there is death of any animal.

Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC)

IPC is an autonomous institution of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare to set standards of drugs in country. Its basic function is to update regularly standards of drugs commonly required for treatment of diseases prevailing in the region. These set of standards are published under title Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) similar to British Pharmacopoeia and United States Pharmacopeia. IPC publishes official documents for improving Quality of Medicines by way of adding new and updating existing monographs in form of IP. It also promotes rational use of generic medicines by publishing National Formulary of India. IPC was established by executive orders in 1945 according to Indian Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940. It is headquartered in Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh.